The Internal Combustion Engine

Continuing with our series of significant objects in the history of motoring, this latest object is really a bit of a ‘no-brainer’! Vehicle technology has been dominated by the next object: the internal combustion engine. It became successful because it proved to be dependable, convenient and affordable. There was also an abundant fuel supply which could be delivered to the vehicle in seconds. Modern engines are cleaner and much more efficient than their predecessors. Today however, there are compelling reasons to find alternatives. There are grave concerns about of the effects of pollution and fears over global warming. We are aware that the supply of easily recoverable oil will not last for ever; it will become more expensive to find and extract. Governments and city authorities are setting emission-free targets and manufacturers are pressing ahead with hybrid or all electric vehicles. Yet the internal combustion engine will not suddenly disappear while issues around battery technology – like the reliance on rare metals, low range on each battery charge and excessively long recharging time – remain unresolved.

ICE

This is a standard four-stroke, four cylinder engine, as used in millions of cars around the world. This cut-away picture demonstrates the classic engine cycle showing intake, compression, ignition and exhaust – otherwise known as suck, squeeze, bang, blow! Other engines in our cars and motorcycles include the straight six-cylinder, single cylinder two-stroke, the V-twin and the V-eight, but they are all versions of the internal combustion engine.

More detail on the history of the Internal Combustion Engine, plus other topics in our series of articles on the Impact of Motoring, can be found on our website under the Exhibitions tab.

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Indian Motorcycle 1915

For the second object in our story of motoring we have chosen the Museum’s 1915 V-twin engine Indian Scout. Motorcycling was an affordable gateway into the early days of motoring and played an important role in the establishment of the Civil Service Motoring Association (CSMA): owners of the Cotswold Motoring Museum and Toy Collection.

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During the 1910s, Indian was the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world with an impressive racing success. In more recent years the bike gained appreciation in the film ‘The World’s Fastest Indian’, released in 2005 and starring Anthony Hopkins as a determined New Zealander, Burt Munro, who ultimately sets a land speed record for under 1000cc bikes of 201.851mph at the Bonneville Salt Flats in the USA.

While for many, the thrill of riding a powerful two-wheeled machine could not be exceeded, for others riding a motorbike was a less expensive alternative to car ownership. Frank Edwards the founder of CSMA, along with many of the original members, was a keen motorcyclist. He had some notable success in competitive racing, but also saw the bike as practical transport. Edwards died just one year after the club’s inauguration and we have very few photographs, so the two with his 1920s Harley Davidson are special to us. Harley Davidson were direct competitors to Indian eventually surpassing them in popularity.Edwards low resEdwards Family

The Bowser Petrol Pump c1921

Tucked in a corner of the Cotswold Motoring Museum is a petrol pump which, despite being bright red and 190cm high, is not particularly imposing and could be passed over quite easily. But missing it would be a pity because this pump has earned its place as the first of ten objects in our history of motoring. Made in the 1920s by S.F. Bowser & Company, the device was operated by turning a large crank handle. The pump’s history can be traced back 40 years earlier to when the company’s founder, Sylvanus Bowser, invented a safe and efficient means of delivering fuel. The original was used for pumping kerosene for heating and lighting, but that was in 1885 and the world was about to change.IMG_2877_edited
The introduction of the motor car greatly increased the demand for fuel. In 1888 Bertha Benz set out on a pioneering 65 mile journey from Mannheim to Pforzheim in her husband’s new automobile. The Weisloch town pharmacy, which still exists today, supplied the fuel and for many it is regarded as the world’s first filling station.
The practice of buying motor fuel in two-gallon cans from chemists, blacksmiths, hardware stores, and even hotels, became the standard practise. However, as motoring became more popular and the demand for petrol increased, providing a quick and safe means of storing and delivering fuel became a priority. As a result, kerbside fuel pumps began to appear outside the newly established filling stations and ‘country garages’. Storage tanks were placed underground and the pumps were moved to a central island. Our modest, hand-cranked, machine was soon replaced by electric giants that were effortlessly capable of gushing gallons of petrol to quench the automobile’s insatiable desire for fuel.

The History of Motoring in Ten Objects

Back in 2012, the Cotswold Motoring Museum & Toy Collection held an exhibition entitled “The History of Motoring in Ten Objects”. It was inspired by the 2010 British Museum Exhibition and Radio Four programme describing the history of the world in 100 objects. We sifted through the many thousands of motor-related objects in the museum to create our own list of nine items for our own exhibition. We then asked visitors to select a tenth item to complete the selection. More than 1000 people took part, with satellite navigation winning the tenth spot by a clear margin.

Over the next few months, we will reprise the ” Ten Objects” in this blog, starting with the Bowser Pump or, as it is better known today, the fuel pump! They were not always quite as smart as today’s electrically operated, precisely calibrated dispensers of petrol and diesel.IMG_4338 edited

For more detailed information on this item plus our “Impact (of Motoring) on the World Today” exhibition, download the free eBook from our website. As well as looking at the impact that motoring has had on our planet, this fascinating book also considers the decisions that we as individuals can take to reduce that impact, with suggestions as to how the current century of motoring may unfold.

Brum’s Christmas Message

At the time when I first became a celebrity, admittedly a few years ago now, it was just the Queen who used to deliver a Christmas message but, I have realised, that many others do this as well. So, after the enthusiastic reception to my words last year about Autonomous Cars, I thought I would share a few more with you all.
Just going back to the topic of autonomous cars that have continued to be so newsworthy over the last 12 months, I am a lot calmer now. I realise that it could still be quite a few years until grown-up cars can drive around a city, avoiding other cars, stopping for pedestrians and understanding the gestures of other drivers: all things I could do brilliantly when I was allowed on to the road. Also, since Graham explained the meaning of the word “crusher”, I have decided not to mention the topic again. Unless, …….., no, never again!
So, what has been happening in the museum? Well, there has been quite a lot going on around me this year. There is the on-going restoration of the Austin Seven pick-up truck; this will be displayed outside the museum once the fine weather returns, hopefully in the Spring of 2018. Then there’s the restoration of the red rickshaw, on display in front of the museum – that was completed. We have some new volunteers who help with restoration tasks and work behind the scenes to ensure that everything continues to work and look presentable. But, best of all, I heard Michael say that we had an all-time record number of visitors this year; overtaking the previous record set in 2002!
Maybe they didn’t all come to see me, but one couple certainly did. The other morning Graham came to open the museum and found a couple who had come all the way from Australia just to see me, I’m sure that is what they said. So, Graham took pity on them and opened early just so they could come and find me. What an honour, I’m still famous! I also heard them saying something about cricket and Ashes and I’m sure I heard that word “crushed” again but I didn’t really understand.
Finally, just between ourselves, I saw all that lovely snow last week and decided to sneak out for a quick spin across the common; I didn’t even tell Graham that I was going and was back before anyone missed me. As you can see from my picture, I was having a great time, then I saw this notice about cars found driving on the common. It said, if found they could be “impounded and crushed”. Oh dear, not again! I must learn to keep a low profile.
Have a lovely Christmas and my best wishes for 2018. Don’t forget to come a see me when we re-open on Saturday 10 February. Toot toot!Brum on common

Caption ideas

Graham kindly provided this photo taken during the final fling of Ophelia (the storm that is). We have had a few ideas for a caption, can you do better?

So far we have:

“The Museum is popular whatever the weather”

“No matter what the weather, the queues just keep growing”

“Who said it never rains in Bourton?”

Who said it never rains in Bourton

Get Kids Out Learning

For many years the museum has encouraged school groups of all ages to visit the museum and enjoy a range of hands-on learning opportunities. These include workshops on transport and toys, quizzes, games even an opportunity to sit on the grey Fergusson tractor.

Given the museum’s enthusiasm for providing a location, away from the classroom, for an enjoyable learning experience for all school-age children, it seemed relevant that when invited, the museum should become a partner with ‘Get Kids Out Learning’.

‘Get Kids Out Learning’ is a scheme run by a company called Tutorful who specialise in web-based tutoring. Founded by a primary school teacher Tutorful claim 8,500 tutors across UK, with half a million visits to their website each month and a record of working with 50,000 families.

Through ‘Get Kids Out Learning’, Tutorful are encouraging more families to switch off the smartphone and laptop and head outside to create learning experiences, memorable for years to come. Children love being outdoors – learning through play and being inspired to explore the world around them. A visit to the museum could be just one such opportunity.

The Tutorful website provides an easy way for families to find local fun days out which provide great learning and educational opportunities for the children. The website allows parents to quickly search any particular region to see all the information they need to plan a great day out! Any parent searching for days out in Gloucestershire will now find the museum as one of their choices.

Although the summer holidays are now fast becoming a distant memory, the scheme has year-round significance and the museum is looking forward to the partnership with ‘Get Kids Out Learning’. We couldn’t think of a better way to promote learning outside of school, than this not-for-profit initiative!

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